When a force from outside is applied to the car in motion, like a sudden change in direction, the car will respond to this sudden change on its own, although the passengers in the car or the objects inside it are still responding to inertia, wherein their motion will still be in a straight line.
When in fact the direction has already changed causing the passengers or the objects to be thrown off. This event is explained by the first law of motion. The application of the second law of motion can be seen in determining the amount of force needed to make an object move or to make it stop.
For example, stopping a moving ball or pushing a ball. How to Calculate Uniform Circular Motion? Example: Centripetal force, It changes the only direction of motion but not the magnitude of the velocity. Force does not always change the direction of motion. Example: Linear motion, the friction only reduces the velocity of the body but does not change the direction.
SI unit of force is Newton. Suggested Videos. Balanced and Unbalanced Forces. Newton's laws. Share with friends. Customize your course in 30 seconds Which class are you in? This comment form is under antispam protection. Notify of. Stuck with a Question Mark? Have a doubt at 3 am? Our experts are available 24x7. Connect with a tutor instantly and get your concepts cleared in less than 3 steps.
Download the App Watch lectures, practise questions and take tests on the go. Download Previous Years Question Papers. We will begin this unit by going outside and running! This activity has two purposes.
The second purpose is to give all the students a common experience to refer back to throughout the unit. The ultimate goal is to time how long it takes the students to run the different distances 10m, 20m, 30m, 40m, 50m, etc. There are several different ways to carry out this activity. I will provide you with several different options.
I will allow every student who wants to run the opportunity to do so. Some students may not want to and that is fine, they will still be an active participant. The first task is to place markers at a starting point andevery ten meters. You can go up to a hundred meters or shorten it to fifty meters due to limited time or space. The meter can be marked off by simply placing backpacks on the ground or spraying the grass with spray paint. You then may want to have the students who do not want to run stand at these marks.
Newton's Laws of Motion: Concepts on Second, Third, First Law of Motion
This will make it easier to see the markers on video. Now it is time for the fun, running! There are a few different ways to do this. You may just time, chart, and graph two or three students; this is all you need to do to accomplish the main objective.
However, an alternate objective is to get the students excited about the unit. With this in mind you may want to time every student who wants to be timed. Remember that at this age they begin to be self-conscious, so some children may not want to be timed. If you do have students running but not being timed they may run together.
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There are two different ways to time the students. One way is to video record the students running and then watches the videos in class. While watching, you will use a stop watch to time how long it took to run each distance. Then, rewind and stop the stop watch when he passes the second meter marker and record the time. Continue until you have every meter completed. This way is the most accurate because the teacher is operating the stop watch. If you do not have a video recorder available or you want to save time, then you may have students standing at the meter markers with a stop watch and paper.
They will stop the stop watch when the student runs past them and record the time. As previously noted this is not the most accurate way, but it will still work. After the data is recorded on a chart, choose two or three different children and graph theirresults and make comparisons. This activity leads to a discussion about the meanings of the terms motion , time , distance , speed , velocity , and acceleration in this order.
Referring to the race and graphs will make it easy to explain and, more importantly, easy for the students to understand. Students will be taught that speed equals distance divided by time so that they may calculate the speeds of two runners. Students will then be taught that velocity is just the speed with the direction. We will then use compasses to figure out the direction to determine the velocity. At this time we will briefly discuss what mass means and calculate the mass of the two runners. Next, we will discuss acceleration and calculate it.
In this activity the students will run and try stopping on different surfaces. Different surfaces include, but are not limited to, the tile in the halls, the wood floor in the gym, the carpet in the classroom, and the black top. During this activity they will observe how friction causes objects to stop and how different surfaces have different amounts of friction. After the fun, a short discussion will be held to insure that the students understand what they observed and that it is called friction.
We will watch the first segment and the first three minutes and twenty-five seconds of the second segment. During this activity the students will participate in a kickball game to observe and experience how inertia makes it difficult for a baseball player to stop on second and third base. In the first paragraph they must give examples of when they observed motion , time , distance , speed , velocity , and acceleration during the kickball game.
They must use the words force , friction , and inertia in the second paragraph. In this activity the students will blow up a balloon and then let it go. The purpose of this is to see that the balloon moves in the opposite direction of the movement of the air. Since we are unable to see the air coming out of the balloon, I would insure that the students understand this by drawing it on the board. While playing we will exert different amounts of force to bounce the ball. We will observe that the more force we exert downward on the ball, the more force the ground exerts up on the ball, causing it the bounce higher.
The example must be one that was not seen or discussed in class. In this activity the students are given two pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters. The students will select two coins at a time and experiment with the coins by sliding them into each other. They will first predict what will happen when one coin hits the other. Through this activity students will observe that objects with more mass must have more force exerted on them in order to get them to move.
This activity will review and reinforce the previously learned conceptsof force , speed , velocity , mass , and acceleration.
Newton’s Laws of Motion
The students will blow up the balloons to make the car accelerate. First they will measure the distance and time. Students will be reminded that speed equals distance divided by time and calculate the speed of their car. Students will then be reminded that velocity is just the speed with the direction.
At this time we will discuss what mass means and calculate the mass of our cars. To achieve this we will calculate the acceleration of three cars with different masses and apply the same amount of force puffs of air in the balloons. This will show the inverse relationship between mass and acceleration. To show the direct relationship between force and acceleration we will use the same car three times and apply different amounts of force.
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All information will be recorded on a chart and comparisons and conclusions will be made. We will discuss the fact that the more momentum an object has the harder it is to stop. To calculate momentum a student will sprint down the hall while several students line the hall with meter sticks to measure the distance and others will operate stop watches to calculate the time.
The students will independently use this information to calculate the speed and then determine the velocity. The students will be given the mass of the sprinter and the equation momentum equals mass multiplied by velocity.
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They will use this information to determine the momentum of the sprinter. We will then discuss how this information is important to car manufacturers because a small compact car will be easier to stop than a SUV, and therefore they would need different braking systems. In this activity the students will drop objects of different weights and sizes in order to come to the conclusion, through experimentation and observation, that all the objects hit the ground at the same time.
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