In order to provide insight into the behavior of dendrimers in biological systems, the interactions of dendrimers with bio-surfactants such as phospholipids in bulk solutions, in solid-supported bilayers and at the interface of phases or solid-states were discussed. Applications of the dendrimer—surfactant aggregates as templates to guide the synthesis of nanoparticles and in drug or gene delivery were also mentioned. The article was received on 22 Dec , accepted on 23 Jan and first published on 24 Jan If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center.
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New Titles. Pick and Choose. Literature Updates. For Members. For Librarians. RSS Feeds. Therefore, in vitro dissolution study has been acknowledged as prominent factor in new drug development.
In earlier decades, the foremost objectives of product development were to increase bioavailability, stability and degradation of the drugs which ultimately leads to the patient compliance. The bioavailability of an oral drug was chiefly influenced by its water solubility at certain pH 1. Inadequate dissolution and disintegration rate were the primary limiting factors in the bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble oral drugs.
In this respect, various novel methods and innovative technologies have currently been introduced for the prime purpose of enhancing wettability and water solubility of active pharmaceuticals agents APIs Komal et al. The different methods, being commonly used for this purpose, were categorized as physical and chemical reforms.
In this review, various advanced colloidal technologies and approaches have been discussed which are effectively used for the enhancement of bioavailability of poorly water-soluble rugs.
Colloids in Biotechnology: 152 (Surfactant Science)
A representative diagram of all the techniques is given in Figure 1. Moreover, some formulation-based approaches are also discussed here. Figure 1. Scheme of strategies used for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Particle technology is a bunch of techniques, used to enhance physicochemical, micrometrics and biopharmaceutical characteristics of the hydrophobic drugs, resulting in their improved solubility and bioavailability.
Such techniques include reduction of the particle size, modification of the crystal development habit and use of polymers and copolymers Salman et al. Similarly, some of these nanosized particle technologies include freeze-dried liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticle SLN and dendrimers. Liposomes are the phospholipid vesicles, comprising entirely of a phospholipid bilayer which surrounds an aqueous compartment within its hydrophilic head and thus can dissolve both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. Because of their dual biphasic characteristics, variety in design and composition, they propose a great dynamic technology for improving the drug solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs Alam et al.
Drugs loading into liposomes leads to significant improvements in their PK and pharmacodynamic properties as compared to their free forms, resulting in increased therapeutic effect and decreased toxicity of the loaded drugs Zeb et al. Nevertheless, one of the major setback with application of liposomes as drug delivery systems is their poor stability on storage. The liposomal formulations can therefore be stabilized by freeze drying the liposomes to get dry powders with increased stability and uphold potency of the incorporated drug.
Moreover, he observed that the stability of the formulation was extraordinarily improved when dextrose was used as a lyoprotectant during freeze drying. He concluded that freeze-drying technique may improve the stability of liposomes. Furthermore, in the production of paclitaxel-liposomal formulation, it was observed that numerous sugars can be used as lyoprotectants including sucrose, dextrose and trehalose Zhang et al.
Colloids in Drug Delivery - Google книги
This formulation was sterile and easy to handle with increased solubility as well as enhanced physicochemical stability. In another study, paclitaxel-loaded liposomes were developed with polyethylene glycol PEG in the hydration medium of liposome resulting in improved solubilization and drug entrapment, leading to improved bioavailability of paclitaxel in rats Yang et al.
Freeze-dried liposome system, being a favorable approach for developing liposomal formulation with enhanced water solubility and upheld bioavailability, could therefore be used for a variety of poorly water-soluble therapeutic agents. Figure 2.
SLNs are colloidal drug carrier system that are developed using lipid which are solid at room temperature. Among these, HPH is the most efficient method owing to the formation of narrow particles with uniform sizes, greater particle content and organic solvents avoidance ud Din, Mustapha et al. Moreover, the SLN is preferred over traditional colloidal carrier system mainly due to its controlled drug release, targeted drug delivery, enhanced stability, bio-friendly nature of the carrier and the capacity to incorporate both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs Figure 2B.
Besides their numerous advantages, SLN exhibited several disadvantages including low drug loading capacity and stability issues during storage or drug administration. Various studies have been performed to check the effectiveness of SLN in enhancing the solubility of poorly soluble aqueous drug ud Din, Rashid et al. It was observed that the absorption of ATRA was significantly enhanced, resulting in improved bioavailability of the drug.
In another study, a hydrophobic drug, tretinoin, was incorporated into SLN by using emulsification method. Similarly, uh Din, Aman et al.
Moreover, they demonstrated that SLN, if further entrapped in hydrogel, may result in excellent sustained release of the loaded drug. Thus, these studies revealed the possibility of using SLN drug delivery system for controlled and prolonged drug delivery. Moreover, they proved to be novel approach to increase the bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. Dendrimers are produced by a stepwise process that includes a molecule with highly regular branched pattern. Furthermore, dendrimer possess a distinct, entirely unique molecular weight, low polydispersity index and a well-defined number of groups on the periphery as can be seen in Figure 2C.
Dendrimers were first reported about two decades ago, but those studies were only concerned with their synthesis, physical and chemical nature.
It was only recently, when their studies become more therapeutic oriented. Dendrimers have shown great results in various fields ranging from genetics gene delivery to magnetic resonance imaging, to the production of vaccines, antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer drugs Talanov et al. A variety of applications of dendrimers have been found in the field of pharmaceutical and medical chemistry, a comprehensive information of which can be found in a recent review covering the area of dendrimers uh Din, Aman et al.
Dendrimers, as drug delivery systems, were used to entrap the drug molecules onto the surface of dendrimers or other functionalities. Despite the potential application of dendrimers, little studies have actually been done in this area. Following are some of the few illustrative studies using colloidal drugs including indomethacin Chauhan et al. Chauhan et al.
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